Neuromodulation is the term used to describe various treatments that aim to treat or manage pain by using implanted electrical devices or drug delivery systems. These may be implanted next to nerves, the spinal cord or even inside the brain, depending on which pain pathways are being targeted. Neuromodulation for chronic back pain, for example, may be used in the form of spinal cord stimulation. This can also be used to treat arm or leg pain.